### Along the Way (Notes) … (a Sky Design)

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Compressive forces usually act on the top of the beam and tensile forces act on the bottom of the beam due to this particular loading. For this example, the equation for calculating the area becomes a bit more complicated than for the size of a column.

As before, force equals the highest or most critical load combination pounds lbs. Length is the total length of the beam that is usually known. Usually, units of length are given in feet ft and often converted to inches. F y is the tensile strength or compressive strength of the material as described above. Z x is a coefficient that involves the dimensions of the cross-sectional area of the member. Figure 3. Example beam shape cross sections: left to right a solid rectangle, an I-shape, and a hollow rectangle.

Every beam shape has its own cross sectional area calculations. Most beams actually have rectangular cross sections in reinforced concrete buildings, but the best cross-section design is an I-shaped beam for one direction of bending up and down. For two directions of movement, a box, or hollow rectangular beam, works well see Figure 3.

Watch this activity on YouTube. Take a moment and think of all the bridges you know around your home and community. Maybe you see them on roadways, bike paths or walking paths. Think of those that have piers columns and girders beams. What do they look like?

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Can you remember the sizes of the piers and girders? Discussion point: Students may recall noticing that piers and girders for pedestrian and bicycle bridges are much smaller than those for highway or railway traffic.

What are examples of load types? Possible answers: Vehicles, people, snow, rain, wind, the weight of the bridge and its railings and signs, etc. Why would the loads make a difference in how an engineer designed a bridge? Answer: Engineers must figure out all of the loads that might affect bridges before they design them. If you were an engineer, how would you go about designing a bridge to make sure it was safe?

Discussion points: First, fully understand the problem to be solved with the bridge, its requirements and purpose. Then figure out all the possible types of loads [forces] that the bridge might need to withstand. Then calculate the highest possible load the bridge might have to withstand at one time. Then figure out the amount of construction material required that can resist that projected load.

To create for a particular purpose or effect. Design a bridge. Pairs Drawing : Divide the class into teams of three students each. Have each engineering team sketch a bridge to carry a train across a river that is meters wide. Have them describe the type of bridge and where the compressive and tensile forces are acting on it. Have them draw in the loads and the direction that they would act on the bridge.

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What do they think the highest load combination would be how many of these loads could actually happen at the same time? Then, ask for one or two engineering teams to volunteer to present the details of their bridge design to the class. All rights reserved. Human Bridge : Have students use themselves as the raw construction material to create a bridge that spans the classroom and is strong enough that a cat could walk across it.

Encourage them to be creative and design it however they want, with the requirement that each person must be in direct contact with another class member. How many places can you identify tension and compression? How would you change the design if the human bridge had to be strong enough for a child to walk across it? What other loads might act upon your bridge? Concluding Discussion : Wrap up the lesson and gauge students' comprehension of the learning objectives by leading a class discussion using the questions provided in the Lesson Closure section.

After using the five UBC load combinations to calculate the highest or most critical load on the first page, they use that information to solve three problems on subsequent pages, determining the required size of bridge members of specified shapes and materials. The three problem questions increase in difficulty: younger students should complete only problem 1; older students should complete problems 1 and 2; advanced math students should complete all three problems.

Have students build and test the load-carrying capacity of balsa wood bridges. Begin by looking at Peter L. Accidents happen! Assign students to investigate and report on what went wrong when a steel beam from a highway viaduct fell onto a moving vehicle. Access excellent and free downloadable bridge design software and other educational resources at the US Military Academy at West Point website: bridgecontest.

Use the online Bridge Designer software no downloading required! Third Edition. American Institute of Steel Construction, Hibbeler, R. Mechanics of Materials. However, these contents do not necessarily represent the policies of the DOE or NSF, and you should not assume endorsement by the federal government. Why K engineering?

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Find more at TeachEngineering. Quick Look. Grade Level: 8 Lessons in this Unit : 1 2 3 4 5 Time Required: 15 minutes Lesson Dependency Lesson dependency indicates that this lesson relies upon the contents of the TeachEngineering document s listed. Print this lesson Toggle Dropdown Print lesson and its associated curriculum. Curriculum in this Unit Most curricular materials in TeachEngineering are hierarchically organized; i. Subscribe to our newsletter.

Educators Share Experiences. Summary Students learn about the types of possible loads, how to calculate ultimate load combinations, and investigate the different sizes for the beams girders and columns piers of simple bridge design. They learn the steps that engineers use to design bridges by conducting their own hands on associated activity to prototype their own structure.

Students will begin to understand the problem, and learn how to determine the potential bridge loads, calculate the highest possible load, and calculate the amount of material needed to resist the loads.

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Engineering Connection Engineers who design structures must completely understand the problem to be solved, which includes the complexities of the site and the customer needs. Structures can be designed to serve particular functions. Grades 6 - 8 More Details View aligned curriculum Do you agree with this alignment? Fluently add, subtract, multiply, and divide multi-digit decimals using the standard algorithm for each operation. Grade 6 More Details View aligned curriculum Do you agree with this alignment? The selection of designs for structures is based on factors such as building laws and codes, style, convenience, cost, climate, and function.

Colorado - Math Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving the four operations with rational numbers. Grade 7 More Details View aligned curriculum Do you agree with this alignment?